Cyborg tissue: Macroporous nanowire nanoelectronic scaffolds for synthetic tissues

This technology uses macroporous, flexible and free-standing nanowire nanoelectronic scaffolds (nanoES), and their hybrids with synthetic or natural biomaterials. 3D macroporous nanoES mimic the structure of natural tissue scaffolds. The structures are formed by self-organization of coplanar reticular networks with built-in strain and by manipulation of 2D mesh matrices. NanoES maintains robust electronic properties and can be used both alone or combined with other biomaterials as biocompatible extracellular scaffolds for 3D culture (examples of initial applications are with neurons, cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells). Furthermore, NanoES can integrate real-time sensory capability of the local electrical activity within 3D nanoES/tissue constructs, which allows one to monitor 3D-nanoES-based neural and cardiac tissue models to drugs, and distinct pH changes inside and outside tubular vascular smooth muscle constructs.


This technology enables never-before-possible monitoring of three-dimensional (3D) synthetic biomaterials through implementation of scaffolds that are both structural and bioactive. Fields ranging from cellular biophysics to regenerative medicine will be influenced by this technology. Applications such as growing next generation transplantable organs that can monitor their own vital parameters will be enabled by this technology. For example, inflammation and other health indicators of manufactured transplantable organs could be monitored for, and/or drugs could automatically be released.

Intellectual Property Status: Patent(s) Pending